The circuit presented here detects interruption in security systems. Its features include no false triggering by external factors (such as sun-light and rain), easy relative positioning of the sensors and alignment of the circuit, high sensitivity, and reliability. The circuit comprises three sections, namely, transmitter, receiver, and power supply. The transmitter generates modulated IR signals and the receiver detects the change in IR intensity. Power supply provides regulated +5V to the transmitter and the receiver.
The power supply and the speaker are kept inside the premises while the transmitter and the receiver are placed oppo site to each other at the entrance where the detection is needed. Three connections (Vcc, GND, and SPKR) are needed from the power supply/speaker to the receiver section, while only two connections (Vcc and GND) are required to the transmitter. The transmitter is basically an astable multivibrator configured around NE555 (IC3). Its frequency should match the frequency of the detector/sensor module (36 kHz for the module shown in figure) in the receiver. The transmitter frequency is adjusted by preset VR2. For making the duty cycle less than 50 per cent, di-ode 1N4148 is connected in the charging path of capacitor C7.
The output of astable multivibrator modulates the IR signal emitted from IR LEDs that are used in series to obtain a range of 7 metres (maximum). To increase the range any further, the transmitted power has to be raised by using more number of IR LEDs. In such a case, it is advisable to use another pair of IR LEDs and 33-ohm series resistor in parallel with the existing IR LEDs and resistor R5 across points X and Y. The receiver unit consists of a monostable multivibrator built around NE555 (IC2), a melody generator, and an IR sensor module. The output of the IR sensor module goes high in the standby mode or when there is continuous presence of modulated IR signal.
Circuit diagram :
High-Performance Interruption Detector Circuit Diagram
When the IR signal path is blocked, the output of the sensor module still re-mains high. However, when the block is removed, the output of the sensor module briefly goes low to trigger monostable IC3. This is due to the fact that the sensor module is meant for pulsed operation. Thus interruption of the IR path for a brief period gives rise to pulsed operation of the sensor module. Once monostable IC2 gets triggered, its output goes high and stays in that state for the duration of its pulse width that can be controlled by preset VR1. The high output at pin 3 of the monostable makes the musical IC to function. Voltage divider comprising R2 and R3 reduces the 555 output voltage to a safer value (around 3V) for UM66 operation. The du-ration of the musical notes is set by pre-set VR1 as stated earlier.
For proper operation of the circuit, use 7.5V to 12V power supply. A battery backup can be provided so that the circuit works in the case of power failure also. Potmeter VR3 serves as a volume control. The transmitter, receiver, and power supply units should be assembled separately. The transmitter and the receiver should have proper coverings (booster) for protection against rain. The length of the wire used for connecting the IR sensor module and IR LEDs should be minimum.
The heart of the circuit is the IR sensor module (usually used in VCRs and TVs with remote); the circuit works satisfactorily with various makes of sensors. The entire circuit can be fixed in the same cabinet if the connection wires to the sensors are smaller than 1.5 meters. The reflection property of IR signals can also be used for small distance coverage.